While officially neutral in the war, Vichy actively collaborated with the Nazis, including, to some degree, with their racial policies. In fact, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over the whole of metropolitan France, except for Alsace-Lorraine, a disputed territory which was placed under German administration though not formally annexed.
In particular, it has become a byword for anything in uniform or even remotely right-of-center. Sure, neo-fascist political parties still have black-shirted adherents sprinkled throughout major urban centers and on the Internetbut the likelihood of a fascist takeover is slim to nonexistent.
This was not the case in the s. During the decade-long economic depression that affected most of the world, fascism, along with socialism, anarchism, and communism, became popular with two kinds of people—those who saw capitalism and democracy as alien systems forced upon them by the US and Great Britain and those who were disenfranchised with the status quo and sluggish economic recovery.
Fascism, no matter what form it took, whether urbane and corporatist or volkischcombined a hostility to both capitalism and communism with personality cults, The vichy government displays of paramilitary and later military power and prowess, and a predilection for violence.
While almost all fascist groups were ardent nationalists, fascism as a whole transcended national boundaries.
In some places, fascism came to dominate the entire political landscape. Fascism flourished past the s in places like Italy where Benito Mussolini oversaw the creation of the first true fascist state in historyin Germany where the model of Italian fascism blended with racialist science, militarism, and populism in order to form an idiosyncratic belief system called national socialismand in South America where authoritarian dictatorships became disarmingly common during the The vichy government War.
Elsewhere, fascist movements threatened standing governments and elections but never managed to hold onto power for any real length of time.
Led by intellectuals, former military men, and their own media empires, the French right during the interwar years —39 was particularly powerful and posed a real challenge to French democracy. On February 6,the Third Republic was rocked by a violent right-wing demonstration that killed 15 people outside of the Chamber of Deputies in Paris.
The major players in the riot were the much older and more cerebral French Action group and the militarist, veteran-heavy Cross of Fire. Alongside these groups was the Francist Movement, an anti-Semitic fascist organization bankrolled by Benito Mussolini, led by a World War I veteran named Marcel Bucard, and defended by a paramilitary organization known as the Blueshirts.
While other right-wing groups in France were somewhat unique in their mannerisms and style of politics, the Francist Movement was a carbon copy of Italian fascismright down to their use of the Roman salute, the use of the fasces as a symbol of their ideology, and their unequivocal support for Germany, Italy, and a fascist France.
However, when Nazi Germany invaded France and split it between the German-occupied north and the collaborationist south, followers of the Francist Movement found themselves in power for a short time in Vichy France.
While Hitler and his followers preached national socialism, Austria subscribed to Austrofascism—a nationalist and authoritarian ideology which was decidedly anti-Nazi.
Although the two groups had been feuding since the s, the Austrian Nazis and the Austrofascists inched closer to internecine warfare after Dollfuss, a diminutive politician and veteran of the Austro-Hungarian army who liked to wear military uniforms decorated with medals and a distinctive Tyrolean feather cap, was named the Chancellor of Austria in After merging his own Christian Social Party with other right-wing groups in order to found the Fatherland Front, Dollfuss quickly set about establishing a repressive, anti-liberal government.
During their attempted takeover of the country, the Austrian Nazis shot Dollfuss twice and then refused to let either a doctor or priest see him, thus letting him die a slow, painful death. Tom Lemmens Comparable to their like-minded brethren next door in France, the Belgian Rexists were ultraconservative Catholics who envisioned a corporatist state fueled by the dual spirit of nationalism and religious adherence.
Unlike most fascist movements at the time, however, the Rexists advocated for the continuation of the Belgian monarchy in the face of widespread liberalism. Led by the charismatic war correspondent Leon Degrelle, the Rexists managed to seat 21 MPs in the face of a resurgent Communist Party during the election.
Until the German occupation of Belgium, this was the closest that the Rexists would get to seizing absolute power. Although a political movement with many followers, the Rexist Party was in reality a personality cult led by Degrelle.
As an officer in the SS, Degrelle fought on the Eastern Front and was awarded numerous decorations for bravery. Degrelle also continued to compose pro-fascist articles for the collaborationist newspaper Le Pays Reel.
After the war, when the Rexist Party was gutted and outlawed like most other far-right parties in Europe. Using the swastika as their symbolthe RFP made their allegiances well-known throughout the s and s.
In this regard, the RFP was quite similar to the movement led by Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, a White Russian general who established a private empire in Outer Mongolia during the s in order to establish a new Russian monarchy that would recreate the ancient Chinese empires.
Another important element to consider in regards to the RFP was the fact that they were based in the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchuko, thus giving them a sort of protected status once Germany and Japan entered into a military alliance.be ruled by US military governors, AMGOT had printed tons of a new currency (see above), etc.
De Gaulle discovered it on D-Day (which incidentally had not been disclosed to the Free French Government by its allies) and rushed to appoint the first " prefets " of delivered territories and restore democracy immediately with a legal government rapidly confirmed by free elections.
Feb 17, · Verdict on Vichy by Michael Curtis (Weidenfield and Nicholson, ) Places to visit A complete repertory of anti-Jewish legislation and its consequences was drawn up by a government . The government of France after Germany defeated and occupied it at the beginning of World War II (see fall of France); Vichy, the capital, is a small city in central France.
The Vichy government was essentially a puppet of the Germans. The Vichy regime was the French government which succeeded the Third Republic from July to August It was proclaimed by Marshal Philippe Pétain following the military defeat of France and the July 10 vote by the National Assembly to grant extraordinary powers to Pétain, who held the title of President of the Council.
The town is a shock, a wild skyline of domes and minarets. Its elegant architecture is neogothic, neoclassic, neo-Alpine, neo-everything.
At first sight, Vichy is a melancholy fragmentation of. French general, leader of the Vichy collaborationist government.