After Copernicus, the next great name in modern science is that of Tycho Brahewho rejected the theory of Copernicus in favor of a modified form of the Ptolemaic system. This was still taught in the schools when two mighty contemporaries, geniuses of science, rose to overthrow it forever. He is regarded to-day as marking a distinct epoch in the progress of the world, and the following account of his work by the eminent scientist, Sir Oliver Lodge, expresses no more than a just appreciation of his great services to mankind.
Galileo Goes to Jail? January 11, by Daniel Halverson Leave a Comment One thing that quickly becomes apparent in discussions about science and religion is that there are a lot of stories out there.
Some of them are quite good. According to this myth, Galileo was imprisoned in an inquisition dungeon, and tortured there, for teaching the heliocentric theory. But free thinkers can take heart. Just as science ultimately forced a retreat in religious dogma in the past, so too will it do in the present, and in the future.
So science progresses, religion retreats. Like most good myths, this one has an element of truth to it. But he was not tortured or sent to a dungeon. He lived the final nine years of his life under house arrest. But the story of how this happened, and why the heliocentric theory was controversial, is, as we often find in the history of science and religion, more complex and interesting than the myth.
Galileo was never tortured, and he was never sent to a dungeon. The myth that Galileo was tortured in a dungeon arose from the Papacy itself.
At the time the early seventeenth centurythe Catholic Church was involved in a fierce contest with the Protestant Reformers.
Starting in the early sixteenth century, Protestants had been attacking Catholic belief and institutions throughout Europe. They denounced the Pope as anti-Christ, and were denounced in turn as heretics. There were cataclysmic wars in Germany, France, and England.
Kings were overthrown, towns destroyed, tens of thousands of people massacred, and many more slain by disease and starvation, in what came to be called the Wars of Religion.
In this crisis, Pope Urban VIII wanted to show other Catholics that he was up the challenge of defending the church, and that he was prepared to take a hard line in enforcing Catholic orthodoxy. When Galileo was condemned, he had documents sent to the lords and Bishops throughout Europe, to the effect that Galileo had been tortured and imprisoned.
The people of the day can be forgiven for believing that it actually happened. But although historians have long known that these events did not in fact occur, the myth persists to this day. The Protestant Reformation is relevant to another aspect of the Galileo affair.
When Copernicus proposed the heliocentric theory, one objection that was raised referred to a story in the book of Joshua, where the Sun miraculously stands still in the middle of the sky. Theological conservatives argued that Joshua says that the Sun stands still, implying that its normal condition is motion.
So this is a clear-cut case of science vs. Well, not so fast. There were serious arguments on offer against the motion of the earth.
One has to do with the stellar parallax. Parallax is the differential, apparent motion of two objects relative to a single observer. As you look out your side window, you see a sign by the side of the road, a town beyond that, and a range of mountains beyond the town.
Your motion down the highway appears as the relative, differential motion of the sign, the town, and the mountains.
Each of them appears to be moving, but not at the same rate. We need to know another fact about science in order to appreciate the argument from stellar parallax: An agricultural society is one in which most of the people are employed in producing food items, and where the economy is based, ultimately, on food production.
Everyone in an agricultural economy has an interest in good, reliable harvests. In order to get the best harvest, one needs to know when to plant the crops.
Too early, and they can grow up stunted from too little light, or get wiped out by a late-winter cold snap.PREFACE to Web edition. Computer: Bit Slices from a Life was converted to HTML for the Web by Frank da Cruz in May for the Columbia University Computing History Project with permission and collaboration of Dr.
Grosch. This is a manuscript of the 3rd edition, a work in progress sponsored by the US National Science vetconnexx.com first edition was published by Third Millenium Books, Novato.
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, He was the oldest of seven children. His father was a musician and wool trader, who wanted his son to study medicine as there was more money in medicine.
At age eleven, Galileo was sent off to study in a Jesuit monastery. After four years. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation. Galileo obeyed the order for seven years, partly to make life easier and partly because he was a devoted Catholic.
In , a friend of Galileo, Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, was elected as Pope. Galileo, in full Galileo Galilei, (born February 15, , Pisa [Italy]—died January 8, , Arcetri, near Florence), Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion, astronomy, and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method.
Raymond B. Cattell and The Fourth Inquisition. By Glayde Whitney Florida State University. This paper originally appeared in The Mankind Quarterly, vol. 38, #1 & 2, Fall/Winter , p Raymond B. Cattell was selected to receive the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement from the American Psychological Foundation.