The act of thinking, distinguished by Aristotle as a peak of human experience, became in Freudian theory most notable as a neurotic exercise designed to inhibit awareness of instinctual needs. The defining need of human consciousness to understand nature and to gain what control it can over external circumstance Freud relegated to the status of an offshoot of sexual curiosity.
Introduction Actually 2 good introductions to Jung and his key concepts run together - these are very good. Jung broadened Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical approach, interpreting mental and emotional disturbances as an attempt to find personal and spiritual wholeness.
Born on July 26,in Kesswil, Switzerland, the son of a Protestant clergyman, Jung developed during his lonely childhood an inclination for dreaming and fantasy that greatly influenced his adult work. These studies brought him international renown and led him to a close collaboration with Freud.
With the publication of Psychology of the Unconscious ; trans. He gave up the presidency of the International Psychoanalytic Society and cofounded a movement called analytical psychology.
During his remaining 50 years Jung developed his theories, drawing on a wide knowledge of mythology and history; travels to diverse cultures in New Mexico, India, and Kenya; and especially the dreams and fantasies of his childhood. In he published a major work, Psychological Types trans. He later made a distinction between the personal unconscious, or the repressed feelings and thoughts developed during an individual's life, and the collective unconscious, or those inherited feelings, thoughts, and memories shared by all humanity.
These correspond to such experiences as confronting death or choosing a mate and manifest themselves symbolically in religions, myths, fairy tales, and fantasies. Jung's therapeutic approach aimed at reconciling the diverse states of personality, which he saw divided not only into the opposites of introvert and extrovert, but also into those of sensing and intuiting, and of feeling and thinking.
By understanding how the personal unconscious integrates with the collective unconscious, Jung theorized, a patient can achieve a state of individuation, or wholeness of self.
Jung wrote voluminously, especially on analytical methods and the relationships between psychotherapy and religious belief. Introduction Psychoanalysis, name applied to a specific method of investigating unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy.
The term refers, as well, to the systematic structure of psychoanalytic theory, which is based on the relation of conscious and unconscious psychological processes.
Theory of Psychoanalysis The technique of psychoanalysis and much of the psychoanalytic theory based on its application were developed by Sigmund Freud. His work concerning the structure and the functioning of the human mind had far-reaching significance, both practically and scientifically, and it continues to influence contemporary thought.
The Unconscious The first of Freud's innovations was his recognition of unconscious psychiatric processes that follow laws different from those that govern conscious experience.
Under the influence of the unconscious, thoughts and feelings that belong together may be shifted or displaced out of context; two disparate ideas or images may be condensed into one; thoughts may be dramatized in the form of images rather than expressed as abstract concepts; and certain objects may be represented symbolically by images of other objects, although the resemblance between the symbol and the original object may be vague or farfetched.
The laws of logic, indispensable for conscious thinking, do not apply to these unconscious mental productions. Recognition of these modes of operation in unconscious mental processes made possible the understanding of such previously incomprehensible psychological phenomena as dreaming.
Through analysis of unconscious processes, Freud saw dreams as serving to protect sleep against disturbing impulses arising from within and related to early life experiences. Thus, unacceptable impulses and thoughts, called the latent dream content, are transformed into a conscious, although no longer immediately comprehensibleexperience called the manifest dream.
Knowledge of these unconscious mechanisms permits the analyst to reverse the so-called dream work, that is, the process by which the latent dream is transformed into the manifest dream, and through dream interpretation, to recognize its underlying meaning. Instinctual Drives A basic assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious conflicts involve instinctual impulses, or drives, that originate in childhood.
As these unconscious conflicts are recognized by the patient through analysis, his or her adult mind can find solutions that were unattainable to the immature mind of the child.
This depiction of the role of instinctual drives in human life is a unique feature of Freudian theory. According to Freud's doctrine of infantile sexuality, adult sexuality is an end product of a complex process of development, beginning in childhood, involving a variety of body functions or areas oral, anal, and genital zonesand corresponding to various stages in the relation of the child to adults, especially to parents.
Of crucial importance is the so-called Oedipal period, occurring at about four to six years of age, because at this stage of development the child for the first time becomes capable of an emotional attachment to the parent of the opposite sex that is similar to the adult's relationship to a mate; the child simultaneously reacts as a rival to the parent of the same sex.Psychoanalysis and Cultural Theory: Race, Sex & Psyche the work of Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalysis and Cultural Theory 2.
Freud, Race, and Gender by Sander L. Gilman (review) signified a certain disturbing racial Freud, Race, and Gender (Princeton, NJ. Twain and Freud on the Human Race: Parallels on Personality, Politics and Religion. Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e., anxiety) or make good things feel better for the individual.
Examples of Defenses Mechanisms There are a large number of defense mechanisms; the main ones are summarized below. What Freud termed defense mechanisms are developed by the ego to deal with such conflicts.
Repression is the most fundamental, but Freud also posited an entire repertoire of others, including reaction formation, isolation, undoing, denial, displacement, and rationalization..
For both Freud and Jung, this intense kind of romantic feeling-sensation was theorized to be the result of projections, psychical illusions. (Freud also associated idealization with the anaclitic.