Research on physiological factors and reading performance

Licencing Abstract The present research study was design to investigate the factors affecting academic performance of graduate students of Islamia University of Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan Campus. The data were collected from students through separate structured questionnaire from different departments of Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan Campus using the simple random sampling technique. For analysis, linear regression model, correlation analysis, and descriptive analysis were used.

Research on physiological factors and reading performance

What are the physiological limitations of the human body? How much are your clients capable of doing?

Physiological Factors P6: Describe the effects of physiological factors on sports training and performance In all, there are 4 physiological factors that may affect someone’s sports performance; Motivation, arousal, anxiety, personality and concentration. Motivation- Motivation is the foundation all athletic effort and . Biological/Physiological Factors Emotion is, however, closely related to motivation and can sometimes provide motivation (as, for example, a student's fear of failing provides motivation for studying). FACTORS THAT AFFECT READING: PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS 1. Pangasinan State University Sta. Maria Campus College of the Teacher Education Prof. Ed. (Developmental Reading 1) FACTORS THAT AFFECT READING: PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS I. Introduction Reading is both physical and physiological.

The attempt to answer these questions led to a plethora of research on the subject of human potential. The factors limiting muscular strength are just now being discovered, but we have a pretty clear picture of what limits the body's capacity for endurance exercise.

Hence, endurance exercise will be the focus of this article. Whether your clients are world-class athletes, recreational runners or recovering couch potatoes, they face similar physiological limitations to their capacity for endurance exercise training and performance.

Research on physiological factors and reading performance

Endurance exercise involves complex integration of multiple physiological functions, but despite its multifaceted nature, this type of exercise is characterized by one simple requirement—the ability to sustain repeated muscle contraction. This criterion is fulfilled primarily through two basic functions: A classic study conducted in the s at Ball State University confirmed the importance of VO2max to endurance exercise performance, with findings indicating a strong correlation between VO2max and mile run times Costill Prolonged exercise requires sustained energy to maintain muscle contraction.

This energy is provided by the continual production of ATP adenosine triphosphatethe universal energy molecule. ATP is produced when a fuel is broken down to release energy.

Research on physiological factors and reading performance

This is accomplished through three metabolic pathways: The first two pathways can produce energy only for short periods; consequently, ATP regeneration for extended exercise is accomplished predominantly through mitochondrial respiration, or aerobic metabolism within the mitochondria of the cells.

For proper functioning, the biochemical reactions involved in mitochondrial respiration depend on continuous oxygen availability.

Enhanced oxygen delivery and utilization during exercise will improve mitochondrial respiration and subsequently the capacity for endurance exercise. Both central physiological functions involving the cardiorespiratory system heart, lungs and blood vessels and peripheral physiological functions such as the tissue extraction of oxygen can limit VO2max.

For decades, exercise physiologists have researched and debated the relative importance of each function in limiting the capacity to perform endurance exercise. The role of this component is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere and deliver it to the muscles, where it is used during mitochondrial respiration to produce ATP.

On the other hand, stroke volume, or the amount of blood pumped per heartbeat, can be substantially increased through endurance training. Endurance training enables both the left and right ventricles to pump a greater volume of blood per heartbeat.

As a result, more blood returns to the heart during exercise. In addition, the heart, being a muscle with the properties of extensibility and contractility, is stretched by the increased blood volume, resulting in increased stroke volume and a more forceful delivery of blood to the body tissues.

The variation in maximal stroke volume explains most of the range observed in VO2max in trained and untrained individuals.

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During incremental exercise that gradually increases to maximal, untrained individuals experience a plateau in stroke volume at an intensity of approximately 50 percent of VO2max. This increased stroke volume allows for further increases in cardiac output and improvements in endurance exercise capacity.

Pulmonary diffusion may be another factor limiting oxygen delivery for endurance exercise, though this factor is thought to play a minor role. The primary function of the lungs is to transfer oxygen from the atmosphere to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing, is the movement of air into and out of the lungs.

Physiological Factors Limiting Endurance Exercise Capacity

Pulmonary diffusion is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood. In normal individuals, pulmonary diffusion is not a factor limiting VO2max.

However, in highly trained endurance athletes with much higher cardiac outputs, pulmonary diffusion may become a limiting factor. The final link in the oxygen delivery chain is blood volume and flow.

Working muscles demand considerably more oxygen and nutrients than resting muscles. To meet the increased needs, more blood must be allocated to the muscles during endurance exercise. In the blood, oxygen is bound to a molecule called hemoglobin, located within the red blood cells.

Regular, intense endurance training increases blood volume via two mechanisms: It is important to add that during intense endurance exercise, the body redistributes blood flow to the metabolically active skeletal muscles, readying the tissues for extraction of the needed oxygen.

Research suggests that during endurance exercise, oxygen delivery to the working muscles is limited, not only by central physiological functions, but also by peripheral physiological functions. In regard to muscle diffusion capacity, a pressure gradient, or difference, that exists between the blood and muscle cells allows for the transportation of oxygen from the red blood cells into the mitochondria.

Oxygen utilization and continued mitochondrial respiration rely on the maintenance of this gradient. Mitochondrial enzyme levels may also play a role.

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Certain enzymes facilitate ATP production in the mitochondria, thereby allowing the working muscles to use more oxygen. Endurance training increases these mitochondrial enzyme levels twofold, resulting in a higher VO2max.

Finally, capillary density can be a peripheral limiting factor, since oxygen exchange between the blood and muscles takes place in the capillaries.Although each of the physiological factors limiting performance is modifiable through endurance training, it is important to recognize that genetic factors play a tremendous role in determining capacity and trainability.

Factors that influence Reading Comprehension: Developmental and Instructional Considerations Dr. Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and Florida Center for Reading Research Core Knowledge Conference, February, Definitions of Reading Comprehension these factors to performance on tests of reading comprehension.

Factors that influence Reading Comprehension: Developmental and Instructional Considerations Dr. Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and Florida Center for Reading Research Core Knowledge Conference, February, Definitions of Reading Comprehension these factors to performance on tests of reading comprehension.

Biological/Physiological Factors Emotion is, however, closely related to motivation and can sometimes provide motivation (as, for example, a student's fear of failing provides motivation for studying).

Physiological Factors P6: Describe the effects of physiological factors on sports training and performance In all, there are 4 physiological factors that may affect someone’s sports performance; Motivation, arousal, anxiety, personality and concentration. Motivation- Motivation is the foundation all athletic effort and accomplishment.

This chapter is an overview of the research study on an evaluation of pupils‘ physiological needs satisfaction on academic performance of public primary schools in the eastern zone of Nakuru municipality.

Physiological Factors Limiting Endurance Exercise Capacity