Although the population of America was growing by leaps and bounds, there were many empty seats in the pews of urban Protestant churches. Middle-class churchgoers were ever faithful, but large numbers of workers were starting to lose faith in the local church.
Country life movement As late ashalf the population lived in rural areas. They experienced their own progressive reforms, typically with the explicit goal of upgrading country life.
The railroad system was virtually complete; the need was for much better roads. The traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was increasingly inadequate.
New York State took the lead inand by the old system had been discarded in every area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile afterurgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic.
The American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in Funding came from automobile registration, and taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. Infederal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, and promote general commerce. The rapidly increasing speed of automobiles, and especially trucks, made maintenance and repair a high priority.
Concrete was first used inand expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the s. Typically, classes were taught by young local women before they married, with only occasional supervision by county superintendents.
The progressive solution was modernization through consolidation, with the result of children attending modern schools. There they would be taught by full-time professional teachers who had graduated from the states' teachers colleges, were certified, and were monitored by the county superintendents.
Farmers complained at the expense, and also at the loss of control over local affairs, but in state after state the consolidation process went forward.
County fairs not only gave prizes for the most productive agricultural practices, they also demonstrated those practices to an attentive rural audience. Programs for new mothers included maternity care and training in baby care.
The traditionalists said many of their reforms were unnecessary and not worth the trouble of implementing. Rural residents also disagreed with the notion that farms needed to improve their efficiency, as they saw this goal as serving urban interests more than rural ones.
The social conservatism of many rural residents also led them to resist attempts for change led by outsiders. Most important, the traditionalists did not want to become modern, and did not want their children inculcated with alien modern values through comprehensive schools that were remote from local control.
A report to Secretary of War Taft provided a summary of what the American civil administration had achieved.
It included, in addition to the rapid building of a public school system based on English teaching, and boasted about such modernizing achievements as: By the law was clearly a failure.
Reformers such as Taft believed landownership would turn unruly agrarians into loyal subjects. The social structure in rural Philippines was highly traditional and highly unequal. Drastic changes in land ownership posed a major challenge to local elites, who would not accept it, nor would their peasant clients.
The American reformers blamed peasant resistance to landownership for the law's failure and argued that large plantations and sharecropping was the Philippines' best path to development. They specialized on such urgent needs as infant care and maternal and child health, the distribution of pure milk and teaching new mothers about children's health.
He was also a leader in promoting environmentalism. While white Progressives in principle believed in improving conditions for minority groups, there were wide differences in how this was to be achieved. Some, such as Lillian Waldfought to alleviate the plight of poor African Americans. Many, though, were concerned with enforcing, not eradicating, racial segregation.
In particular, the mixing of black and white pleasure-seekers in 'black-and-tan' clubs troubled Progressive reformers. That is to say that most Progressives saw racial integration as a problem to be solved, rather than a goal to be achieved. He states that ultimately progressives "were responsible for bringing scientific racism to an end".
Progressives believed that the family was the foundation stone of American society, and the government, especially municipal government, must work to enhance the family. Inspired by crusading Judge Ben Lindsey of Denver, cities established juvenile courts to deal with disruptive teenagers without sending them to adult prisons.
For the working class this work was often as a domestic servant. Yet working or not women were expected to perform all the cooking and cleaning. These products were anything from mayonnaise, soda, or canned vegetables.Ministers of Reform: The Progressives’ Achievement He reedits his affiliation, the American Civilization Program at the University of Texas as well as his surrounding environment, that gave him the extra incentive for writing Ministers of Reform.
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public vetconnexx.comically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. However, since the s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs (i.e., student achievement).
Ministers of Reform The Progressives' Achievement in American Civilization, Crunden demonstrates that the same spirit of nnovation and moral rectitude so typical of the era's politics also characterized its artistic endeavors.
The Progressive Era is a period of "widespread" social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the s to the s. The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption..
The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. Ministers of reform: the Progressives' achievement in American civilization, / Robert M. Crunden. Get this from a library!
Ministers of reform: the Progressives' achievement in American civilization, [Robert Morse Crunden].