Significantly reduces use of fossil fuels farm machines and transport of crops Makes use of abandoned or unused properties No weather related crop failures Offers the possibility of sustainability for urban centers Converts black and gray water to drinking water Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation Creates new urban employment opportunities Reduces the risk of infection from agents transmitted at the agricultural interface Returns farmland to nature, helping to restore ecosystem functions and services Controls vermin by using restaurant waste for methane generation No-cost restoration of ecosystems: The best reason to consider converting most food production to vertical farming is the promise of restoring ecosystem services and functions This belief stems, in part, from numerous anecdotal observations as to the current biological state of some territories that were once severely damaged either by now-extinct civilizations or over-farming, and, in part, from data derived from National Science Foundation-sponsored long-term ecological research program LTERbegun inon a wide variety of fragmented ecosystems purposely set aside subsequent to an extended period of encroachment The following case studies will serve to illustrate these points.
Abortion The abortion debate most commonly relates to the "induced abortion" of an embryo or fetus at some point in a pregnancy, which is also how the term is used in a legal sense. In medical parlance, "abortion" can refer to either miscarriage or abortion until the fetus is viable.
After viability, doctors call an abortion a "termination of pregnancy". Rise of anti-abortion legislation[ edit ] Abortion laws in the U.
Illegal 30 Legal in case of rape 1 Legal in case of danger to woman's health 2 Legal in case of danger to woman's health, rape or incest, or likely damaged fetus 13 Legal on request 4 [ citation needed ] When the United States first became independent, most states applied English common law to abortion.
This meant it was not permitted after quickeningor the start of fetal movementsusually felt 15—20 weeks after conception.
Ina Connecticut law targeted apothecaries who sold "poisons" to women for purposes of inducing an abortion, and New York made post-quickening abortions a felony and pre-quickening abortions a misdemeanor in Some argue that the early American abortion laws were motivated not by ethical concerns about abortion but by concern about the procedure's safety.
However, some legal theorists point out that this theory is inconsistent with the fact that abortion was punishable regardless of whether any harm befell the pregnant woman and the fact that many of the early laws punished not only the doctor or abortionist, but also the woman who hired them.
Physicianswho were the leading advocates of abortion criminalization laws, appear to have been motivated at least in part by advances in medical knowledge.
Science had discovered that conception inaugurated a more or less continuous process of development, which would produce a new human being if uninterrupted. Moreover, quickening was found to be neither more nor less crucial in the process of gestation than any other step.
Many physicians concluded that if society considered it unjustifiable to terminate pregnancy after the fetus had quickened, and if quickening was a relatively unimportant step in the gestation process, then it was just as wrong to terminate a pregnancy before quickening as after quickening.
For one, abortion providers tended to be untrained and not members of medical societies. In an age where the leading doctors in the nation were attempting to standardize the medical profession, these "irregulars" were considered a nuisance to public health.
Despite campaigns to end the practice of abortion, abortifacient advertising was highly effective in the United Statesthough less so across the Atlantic. Before the start of the 19th century, most abortions were sought by unmarried women who had become pregnant out of wedlock.
In the post-Civil War eramuch of the blame was placed on the burgeoning women's rights movement.
Though the medical profession expressed hostility toward feminism, many feminists of the era were opposed to abortion. Anthonyan anonymous contributor signing "A" wrote in about the subject, arguing that instead of merely attempting to pass a law against abortion, the root cause must also be addressed.
Simply passing an anti-abortion law would, the writer stated, "be only mowing off the top of the noxious weed, while the root remains. It will burden her conscience in life, it will burden her soul in death; But oh!
This movement presaged the modern debate over women's body rights. Criminalization of abortion accelerated from the late s, through the efforts of concerned legislators, doctors, and the American Medical Association.
Later that year, Comstock successfully influenced the United States Congress to pass the Comstock Lawwhich made it illegal to deliver through the U.
It also prohibited producing or publishing information pertaining to the procurement of abortion or the prevention of conception or venereal diseaseeven to medical students.
Some states included provisions allowing for abortion in limited circumstances, generally to protect the woman's life or to terminate pregnancies arising from rape or incest. The American Birth Control League was founded by Margaret Sanger in to promote the founding of birth control clinics and enable women to control their own fertility.Although the overall infant mortality rate was sharply dropping during this time, within the United States infant mortality varied greatly among racial and socio-economic groups.
The change in infant mortality from to was, for the white population, in 1, to in 1,, and for the black population, in 1, to in 1, Cities have played a crucial role in human development for more than 9, years. From Jericho, the oldest known city in the world, to Tokyo, the largest city today, cities have served as centers.
Jul 20, · Through education and awareness, the United States has dropped infant mortality rates dramatically. In , infant death averaged twelve percent due to low birth weight (Reichman, ). Infant mortality dropped to seven percent in the early new millennium (Reichman, ).
Infant Mortality Essays: Over , Infant Mortality Essays, Infant Mortality Term Papers, Infant Mortality Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access like that of Canada, could lower the infant mortality rate of the United States because healthcare would be readily available to.
Abortion in the United States has been, and remains, a controversial issue in United States culture and politics. Various anti-abortion laws have been in force in each state since at least Before the U.S.
Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade decriminalised abortion nationwide in , abortion was already legal in several states, but the decision imposed a uniform framework for state. Although the United States dramatically decreased over the past few decades, it still ranks high compared to many other countries (Tanner, ).
Although it may appear that race is the deciding factor in infant mortality, the real factor is income level.4/4(1).