Bovine spongiform encephalopathy essay

Minus Related Pages BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible agent called a prion. The nature of the transmissible agent is not well understood.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy essay

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE is a relatively new disease found primarily in cattle. This disease of the bovine breed was first seen in the United Kingdom in November by histopathological examination of affected brains Kimberlin, From the first discovery in to this disease developed into a large-scale epidemic in most of the United Kingdom, with very serious economic consequences Moore, BSE primarily occurs in adult cattle of both male and female genders.

The most common age at which cows may be affected is between the ages of four and five Blowey, Due to the fact that BSE is a neurological disease, it is characterized by many distinct symptoms: The duration of the clinical disease varies with each case, but most commonly lasts for several weeks.

BSE continues to progress and is usually considered fatal Blowey, After extensive research, the pathology of BSE was finally determined. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system that consist of a bilaterally symmetrical, non-inflammatory vacuolation of neuronal perikarya and grey-matter neuropil was the scientists' overall conclusion Stadthalle, These lesions are consistent with the diseases of the more common scrapie family.

Without further investigation, the conclusion was made that BSE was a new member of the scrapie family Westgarth, Transmission of BSE is rather common throughout the cattle industry.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy essay

After the incubation period of one to two years, experimental transmission was found possible by the injection of brain homogenates from Bovine spongiform encephalopathy essay cases Swanson, This only confirmed that BSE is caused by a scrapie-like infectious agent. How does the transmission become so readily available among the entire United Kingdom feedlot population?

Studies showed that the mode of infection was meat and bone meal that had been incorporated into concentrated feedstuffs as a protein-rich supplement Glausiusz, It is thought that the outbreak was started by a scrapie infection of cattle, but the subsequent course of the epidemic was driven by the recycling of infected cattle material within the cattle population Lyall, Although the average rate of infection is very low, the reason why this led to such a large number of BSE cases is that much of the United Kingdom dairy cattle population was exposed for many, continuous years Kimberlin, To help control the outbreak, the British government in introduced a ban on the feeding of ruminant protein to other ruminant animals Lacey, Such knowledge for the pathogenesis of the BSE disease shows precisely the actions that must be taken in order to control and minimize the risk of infection in healthy cattle around the world Darnton, The appearance of BSE has made a sizable impact throughout much of the world even though few countries, other than the United Kingdom, have experienced positive cases Burton, The scare of an outbreak in other countries has led to a great disruption in the trade economy, as well as other factors concerning each of the country's general welfare.

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However, a rapid increase in the understanding of the disease over the last four years leaves few unanswered questions of major importance Masood, BSE has been prevented, controlled and eradicated. As mentioned, BSE was first recognized in the United Kingdom and it is only there that a large-scale epidemic has occurred Burton, The deadly epidemic started simultaneously in several parts of the country and cases have been distributed over a wide area ever since Cowell, Some of these cases were associated with the importation of live animals, meat, and bone meal from the United Kingdom Cherfas, Two cases of BSE have also occurred in cattle from the country of Oman.

These animals were thought to be part of a consignment of fourteen pregnant heifers imported from England in Various cases have also been confirmed in Europe, Switzerland, and France Patel, At the beginning, the only losses due to BSE were those directly associated with the death or slaughter of BSE infected animals Cowell, In Augusta slaughter policy with part compensation was introduced to help lessen the burden on individual farmers.

As the number of BSE cases increasedand more farmers were experiencing a second case, full compensation was introduced in February Moore, In alone over 8, suspected and confirmed cases of BSE were slaughtered. The compensation costs for the year were well over 2.

Once studies had identified meat and bone meal as the vehicle of infection, the United Kingdom Government banned the feeding of all ruminant- derived protein to ruminants Glausiusz, This had an immediate impact on the cattle industry in terms of reduced exports and domestic sales of meat and bone meal Hager, Inthe Commission of the European Communities banned the importation, from the United Kingdom, of all live cattle born before July Panic throughout the world caused many countries to entirely ban the importation of all live cattle from the United Kingdom.

Some even went as far as to ban the importation of milk and milk products Hunter, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or BSE, also known as Mad Cow disease, was first diagnosed in Great Britain in (1) BSE is another form of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathlies (TSE).

The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad Cow Disease essay

Essay Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a relatively new disease found primarily in cattle. This disease of the bovine breed was first seen in the United Kingdom in November by histopathological examination of affected brains (Kimberlin, ).

BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible agent called a prion.

The nature of the transmissible agent is not well understood. Currently, the most accepted theory is that the agent is a modified form.

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