World Civilizations I, the Rise of Civilization. Examination of major theoretical trends and debates that shaped the discipline of anthropology past and present.
The Igbo believe the world is peopled by invisible and visible forces: Reincarnation is seen as a bridge between the living and the dead. However, many of its practices are locally organized, with the most effective unit of religious worship being the extended family.
Periodic rituals and ceremonies may activate the lineage larger kinship unit or the village, which is the widest political community.
The Igbo believe in a supreme god who keeps watch over his creatures from a distance. He seldom interferes in the affairs of human beings. No sacrifices are made directly to him. However, he is seen as the ultimate receiver of sacrifices made to the minor gods.
To distinguish him from the minor gods he is called Chukwu—the great or the high god. As the creator of everything, he is called Chukwu Abiama.
There are also minor gods, who are generally subject to human passions and weaknesses.
They may be kind, hospitable, and industrious; at other times they are treacherous, unmerciful, and envious. These minor gods include Ala, the earth goddess. She is associated with fertility, both of human beings and of the land.
Anyanwu is the sun god who makes crops and trees grow. Igwe is the sky god, the source of rain. In addition to their gods, the Igbo believe in a variety of spirits whose good will depends on treating them well.
Forests and rivers at the edge of cultivated land are said to be occupied by these spirits. Mbataku and Agwo are spirits of wealth. Others include Aha njoku the yam spirit and Ikoro the drum spirit. The Igbo attitude toward their deities and spirits is not one of fear but one of friendship.
In addition, each town has its own local festivals. Those in the spring or summer are held to welcome the new agricultural cycle. In the fall, harvest festivals are held to mark the end of the cycle. The name-giving ceremony is a formal occasion celebrated by feasting and drinking.
A wide variety of names may be chosen. The name Nwanyimeole —"What can a woman do? Onwubiko —"May death forgive"—expresses the fact that parents have lost many of their children and pray that this child may survive.
The process of marrying a young Igbo woman is a long, elaborate one. It is rarely accomplished in less than a year and often takes several years. The process falls into four stages: Death in old age is accepted as a blessing. The corpse is placed on a stool in a sitting posture.
Old friends and relatives visit and pay their last respects. Young men wrap the corpse in grass mats, carry it out to the burial ground, and bury it. When the head of a family dies, he is buried beneath the floor of his house.
Burial generally follows within twenty-four hours of death. Respect is given to males, and to older persons. Children are always required to offer the first greeting to their elders. Social status is based on wealth, regardless of occupation.
The Igbo distinguish between obgenye or mbi the poordinkpa the moderately prosperousand nnukwu madu or ogaranya the rich.ANTH #15 vetconnexx.com ANTHROPOLO ANTH 01 - Spring Jurmain Ess 9e PPT ch vetconnexx.com 68 pages. Analyses show that H erectusergaster represents closely related species and University of Houston ANTH - Spring Chapter 51 pages.
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This course is an introduction to cultural anthropology. Through the examination of anthropological concepts, we will ANTH Course Description and Objectives. in-class assignment score will There are NO make-up in-class assignments. 4/2/13 - Anth Slide: States Society States: Pre-industrial states * economy based more on human/animal manual labor * Early or Archaic States - Industrial states.
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View Notes - ANTH Syllabus - Fall from ANTH at University of Waterloo. UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Course Syllabus: Anthropology FALL Introduction to Social and Cultural. Write my research paper Question description Total word count: , no outside resources needed, only use the attached file reading for this assignment.
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